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When Dr Harold Younger, an eminent Belizean political scientist, takes guests on a journey round Belize Metropolis, the primary cease is an unremarkable constructing, whose basement entrance is partly shrouded by creeping pink bougainvillea.

Its padlocked gates and damaged home windows again on to a car parking zone within the metropolis’s historic centre. Most passersby ignore the innocuous plaque exterior. Belize, a rustic of 400,000 residents, is geographically positioned in Central America however part of the English-speaking Caribbean. A former British settlement after which colony, it is likely one of the area’s eight remaining Commonwealth realms – unbiased nations the place the monarch stays the pinnacle of state. Belize is the one Commonwealth realm King Charles has by no means visited.

The constructing is blocked from public entry however is understood regionally as the previous headquarters of a TV station and manufacturing firm as soon as owned by the Conservative peer Lord Michael Ashcroft, who has sprawling enterprise investments round Belize.

illustration of people felling trees
Enslaved labour in Belize revolved across the logging of mahogany at camps within the nation’s inside. {Photograph}: Chronicle/Alamy

However for many who are conscious, the constructing serves as a horrifying reminder of the brutality of British rule right here. “It’s the final remnants of a holding dungeon for slaves,” Younger says. “Earlier than they have been put out on the market.”

In contrast to the island states within the Caribbean, the place plantation slavery underpinned the colonial economic system, enslaved labour in Belize revolved across the logging of mahogany at camps within the nation’s inside.

The key settlements in British Honduras, because it was recognized till 1973, have been thus sparsely populated, and the remnants of violent enslavement at the moment are largely absent from public view.

The constructing’s story has been handed down for generations, and is famous in sure vacationer literature. However the historic plaque exterior, whereas acknowledging its use within the mahogany commerce, presents its connections to slavery merely as “native folklore”.

“If you stay in a colonial setting, the colonialists don’t need you to show what they have been doing was a horrendous commerce, proper?” says Younger, who’s Belizean Creole, which means of combined African heritage. “However a hangover from colonialism too is a insecurity: that native issues will not be of worth or historic significance.”

Dr Harold Young stands outside a building in Belize City believed to have detained enslaved people.
Dr Harold Younger stands exterior a constructing in Belize Metropolis believed to have detained enslaved individuals. {Photograph}: Oliver Laughland/The Guardian

As Younger describes it, the constructing is a logo of a broader id disaster right here, related to the intimacy of colonialism itself and wounds that haven’t healed nicely into independence. Historical past continues to be not totally informed. Crimes stay unacknowledged.

“That colonialism,” he says. “It nonetheless lingers.”

However as the UK prepares to crown its new king, the residents of Belize are laying the groundwork for a equally historic occasion: they could possibly be the primary nation to take away Charles as head of state.

In November final yr, the not too long ago elected centre-left authorities introduced {that a} individuals’s fee would evaluation the nation’s structure – written on the time of its independence in 1981. A yr earlier, a decision in parliament known as for reparatory justice from the UK “on behalf of the previous slaves and their descendants”.

The method, the prime minister, Johnny Briceño, acknowledged in an interview with the Guardian, means it’s “fairly doubtless” that Belize would be the subsequent nation to depart the Commonwealth realm, following Barbados’s seismic choice to turn into a republic in 2021.

man poses next to flag
The prime minister of Belize, Johnny Briceño, in his workplace. {Photograph}: Oliver Laughland/The Guardian

Requested what relevance the coronation has to the lives of Belizeans, Briceño was trustworthy: “There isn’t any pleasure,” he stated. “We’re so distant from the UK … You don’t see individuals taking out their Union Jack flags or something.”

Briceño is unable to journey to the occasion in London, though Belize’s governor basic will attend. There will probably be no public vacation right here.

Strolling round Belize Metropolis’s historic downtown, the place an outdated Put up Workplace constructing nonetheless bears the insignia of Elizabeth II and an occasional pink put up field is noticed on the road, it’s exhausting to dispute Briceño’s frank evaluation.

Many individuals do not know the coronation is because of happen in any respect. Some categorical a imprecise fondness for the late Queen, who nonetheless adorns the forex and visited twice throughout her reign. However there may be additionally gentle disdain for the brand new monarch and the extramarital affair that led to the breakdown of his first marriage.

A red postbox on the grounds of a hotel in Belize City.
A pink postbox on the grounds of a lodge in Belize Metropolis. {Photograph}: Oliver Laughland/The Guardian
10 dollar bill
Belizean forex nonetheless bears the picture of Queen Elizabeth II. {Photograph}: Aurore Shirley/Alamy

“It’s time that the pinnacle of state, each ceremonial and legally, be Belize and Belizian,” says Orson “OJ” Elrington, an lawyer and member of the constitutional fee. . He admits he didn’t know the coronation was as a consequence of happen inside per week. “It’s extra than simply symbolism. Finally it’s the final stage of our decolonization. It’s the final stage of true independence.”


Belize isn’t alone in pushing ahead constitutional reform efforts. Following the Barbados prime minister Mia Mottley’s choice to make use of her get together’s parliamentary supermajority to transition the nation right into a republic, discussions over the way forward for the British monarchy have accelerated all through the area.

Now, officers in seven of the remaining realm nations within the Caribbean have indicated they’ll search to comply with the identical path – although timetables, procedures and authorities dedication fluctuate in every nation. Belize is the one remaining state within the Caribbean the place, as in Barbados, the monarchy could possibly be eliminated with out a referendum. Briceño has dedicated to holding a referendum on the suggestions of the constitutional fee – however he didn’t rule out the potential of eradicating the monarchy with a vote in parliament.

In Jamaica, the place elimination would require a two-thirds majority in parliament and a easy majority in a referendum, the federal government has dedicated to a vote earlier than the subsequent basic election in 2025. In Antigua and Barbuda, the prime minister, Gaston Browne, stated shortly after the loss of life of Queen Elizabeth that he would maintain a referendum inside three years. A two-thirds majority is required to cross the brink, making the hurdle even larger. The situation is identical in St Vincent and the Grenadines, the place a referendum on a transition to a republic failed in 2009. Final yr, the prime minister, Ralph Gonsalves, articulated help for one more vote however stated he would solely accomplish that with bipartisan help, which means no clear timetable is but evident.

charles smiles and gestures as browne listens
King Charles III with Gaston Browne, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda, in September. {Photograph}: Reuters

“Referenda come on the finish of a protracted course of, so change elsewhere [in the Caribbean] is not going to come in a single day,” stated Dr Kate Quinn, affiliate professor in Caribbean historical past at College School London. “And the result of referenda usually is unpredictable. There’s a hazard that they turn into polls on the federal government of the day moderately than the problems on the cardboard. If the difficulty of shifting to a republic turns into strongly related to one get together over one other, they are often scuppered by partisan politics.”

Such debate is much from new to the English-speaking Caribbean and didn’t start with Barbados’s choice in 2021, nor the loss of life of Queen Elizabeth final yr. Carried by a wave of Black nationalism and socialism, three former British colonies, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and the newly unbiased Dominica, eliminated the monarch as head of state all through the Seventies. Options to the crown had been debated in in style circles lengthy earlier than even then.

Quinn, who’s a part of a analysis undertaking, The Seen Crown, analyzing the historical past of the Caribbean’s relationship with the monarchy, factors to teams just like the early Rastafarians in Jamaica in the course of the Nineteen Thirties, whose perception within the divinity of Haile Selassie was itself seen as an act of sedition.

Nonetheless, symbolism and imagery of the present second – from the approaching coronation to latest royal excursions – matter, notably as relations between the English-speaking Caribbean and the UK fall to new lows within the aftermath of the Windrush scandal and each the authorities and the monarchy’s latest refusals to transcend passive expressions of remorse and supply a proper apology for the atrocities of slavery.

In March final yr, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s go to to the Caribbean marking the Queen’s jubilee was punctuated by a collection of protests that forged a protracted shadow over the train in smooth energy. In Jamaica, pictures of the pair shaking arms with kids by a chainlink fence and later parading in white clothes in an open-top Land Rover have been decried as a throwback to colonialism.

William and Kate in an open-top vehicle
The Duke And Duchess Of Cambridge attend a parade for service personnel from throughout the Caribbean in Kingston, Jamaica, in March 2022. {Photograph}: Chris Jackson/Getty Photos

In Belize, the couple have been compelled to desert plans to go to a Mayan village within the nation’s south, following protest. William’s connections to a conservation charity concerned in a neighborhood land dispute and plans to land their helicopter on a close-by soccer area with out session have been deemed offensive.

“There’s solely a lot the fig leaf of public relations and workouts in ‘smooth energy’ can cowl,” stated Quinn. “These pictures and movies have been extensively shared on social media, and undoubtedly have been a present to the republican trigger in addition to to the case for reparations.”


Outside St John’s Cathedral in Belize Metropolis, the stays of a semicircular brick wall mark the boundary from the place, it’s stated, enslaved individuals have been permitted to take heed to companies inside. The constructing itself was constructed by enslaved labour, however colonial authorities banned enslaved individuals from coming into.

woman stands next to pews
Jacinta Garbutt, a neighborhood tour information and volunteer on the St John’s Cathedral in Belize Metropolis. The cathedral was constructed by enslaved individuals in 1812 utilizing ballast bricks from British ships. {Photograph}: Oliver Laughland/The Guardian

Bryton Codd, a 28-year-old authorities coverage adviser and a founding father of the Younger Leaders Alliance of Belize, was baptised right here. Towering and charismatic, he has conflicting feelings as we stroll across the rows of mahogany pews inside. On the entrance is a bench that seated Queen Elizabeth throughout her go to in 1994 – identified with pleasure by a workers member exhibiting us round.

Codd remembers the royal go to of final yr with a relaxed disdain. “From my perspective it was a colonial celebration,” he says. “There ought to have been a deeper dialogue on broadening the dialog on reparations, acknowledging the atrocities of our colonial previous and for them [the royal family], condemning the actions of their ancestors.”

His organisation is represented within the Folks’s Constitutional Fee right here, together with the Nationwide Union of College students, a recognition of the necessity for youthful voices to have a say within the nation’s reform efforts. Belize is a younger nation: the median age is simply 25.5 years.

Like many, Codd articulates a perceived intergenerational divide amongst attitudes to the monarchy.

“My grandmother was from the colonial period. She grew up singing God Save the Queen,” he says, “However I don’t even know the phrases.

“There was a paradigm shift by way of the tradition of younger individuals in the present day. We’re unbiased thinkers. We problem the established order.”

Nonetheless, analysis carried out by the Seen Crown undertaking, analyzing attitudes to the monarchy in Barbados previous to the transition, revealed that the best stage of help for republicanism got here from these over 65 years outdated. The important thing determinant, the survey discovered, was training, with these finishing faculty or college much more prone to help ending ties with the monarchy.

man seated on beach
Bryton Codd is certainly one of Belize’s most impassioned advocates for elimination of the monarchy. {Photograph}: Oliver Laughland/The Guardian

Codd is attuned to the necessity to hold individuals knowledgeable and educated in regards to the work of the PCC, which held its first non-public workshop conferences final week. He’s mobilising an info marketing campaign over WhatsApp, making ready bite-sized chunks of pertinent dialogue to share with lots of of his younger members.

The evaluation extends nicely past the way forward for the monarchy, into points like enshrining human rights, reforming the judiciary and altering the nation’s electoral system, at present based mostly on the Westminster system, which means most members of the ruling get together additionally serve in authorities cupboard.


Past the Caribbean, the coronation of a brand new monarch has thus far carried out little to outwardly shift the needle in remaining realm states.

For the three largest, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, all former British dominions with majority-white populations and established republican actions, the dynamics of the talk are completely different by historic design, and the political will mired in different points.

In Australia, for instance, the not too long ago elected Labor prime minister, Anthony Albanese, has lengthy articulated his help for a republic. However his authorities’s precedence in its first time period is a referendum on a constitutional modification to formally recognise Indigenous Australians and set up a everlasting Indigenous advisory physique to parliament.

Albanese has stated any vote on the way forward for the monarchy would happen if his authorities wins a second time period after 2025. He has appointed a brand new minister overseeing Australia’s transition to a republic.

The sentiment is comparable in New Zealand, the place parliament has the ability to take away the monarchy with out calling a referendum. Within the quick aftermath of the Queen’s loss of life, the previous prime minister Jacinta Ardern predicted the transfer would occur however laid out no timeframe.

The complexities in New Zealand, partially, are tied to the treaty of Waitangi, an settlement between crown and the Māori individuals, which, nevertheless poorly honoured, positioned the monarchy because the guarantor of Māori rights to sources and preservation of tradition.

pair stand side by side
King Charles III and the Queen Consort throughout a Backyard Social gathering at Buckingham Palace, London, in celebration of the coronation. {Photograph}: Yui Mok/PA

Charles’s place as head of the Commonwealth of Nations, the broader political affiliation of 56 states, largely former territories of the British empire, has additionally been cemented for the quick future. In 2018, Commonwealth leaders voted on the request of Queen Elizabeth to put in Charles as her successor, guaranteeing that, in the intervening time no less than, the crown remained symbolically atop of what’s primarily a voluntary membership of member states with little political or financial sway.

“The Commonwealth’s obituary has been written so many instances, however it’s by no means been true,” stated Dr Harshan Kumarasingham, a senior lecturer in political science on the College of Edinburgh. “One way or the other it retains surviving. And one of many causes is that it does proceed within the cloth of British society, and within the societies of all of the member states.”

Nonetheless, stated Kumarasingham, there may be nothing to ensure Charles will stay its ceremonial head all through his reign if a big variety of member states elevate dissent at a heads of presidency assembly. The subsequent assembly is scheduled for 2024 in Samoa. .


In Belmopan, Belize’s capital metropolis, Briceño acknowledges that ought to Belize transfer away from the monarchy, the nation would stay within the Commonwealth of Nations, as Barbados has carried out.

There are not any ensures, nevertheless, and regardless of Briceño’s optimism he realises that there are nonetheless challenges to dispel the numerous myths that encompass transitioning right into a republic. Main amongst them is a concern that departure from the crown would re-intensify an ongoing border dispute with neighbouring Guatemala, which has lengthy laid declare to swathes of territory in Belize. (There are not any ensures of British navy help within the present structure.)

However above anything, Briceño says, the constitutional reform effort should overcome a broader apathy in Belize, the place 42% of residents stay in poverty and the local weather disaster poses an ever-evolving menace.

“I simply don’t suppose it [the monarchy] is up there within the minds of individuals for the time being,” Briceño says. Apart from the urgent problems with the economic system, crime and local weather, Briceño focuses repeatedly on the necessity for reparations.

“The UK turned nice on the backs of the colonies they usually do have a duty to have some type of reparations. They are going to by no means have the ability to pay again what was plundered and possibly the tens of millions of lives that have been misplaced.”

However, he provides: “A public apology is a begin.”

This text was amended on 4 Could 2023. Belize was often called British Honduras till 1973, not 1964 as an earlier model stated. The latter yr is when it turned self-governing.



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